The Battle of Badr took place in 624 AD 2nd Year Of Hijra). The trade caravans of the Quraish used to pass through Madina. The prophet (P.b.u.h) decided to threaten these caravans. In 624 AD Abu Sufyan, the leader of Quraish was coming from Syria with a huge trading caravan. He was afraid that the Muslims might intercept his caravan and therefore he summoned troops from Makkah.
Hence, an army of 1000 men came to escort the caravan. Although the caravan reached Makkah safely yet Abu Jahl insisted on fighting the Muslims. So Quraish with an army of 1000 men marched towards Madina. When the prophet heard of this, he consulted his companions and decided to fight them outside Madina. The Muslims were able to raise an army of about 313 men. Both the armies met at the mountain of Badr.
Both the armies met at the mountain of Badr.The Quraish had arrived first, so they occupied all the important positons. The area Muslims got was sandy land. That night Allah sent down rain and not only were the Muslims able to get plenty of water but their land also got smooth.
The Quran describes the scene:
“He sent down water on You from heaven, to purify you thereby and to put away from you the defilement of Satan, and to strengthen your hearts and to confirm your feet.”
The Muslims were ill-equipped and Quraish heavily outnumbered the Muslims and so the prophet (P.b.u.h) spent the entire night praying to Allah.
Allah responded to this by sending heavenly assistance. regarding this the Quran says:
“I will assist you with a thousand angel rank by rank”
Initially, when the battle started, there was a single combat in which Hazrat Ali, Hazrat Hamza and Hazrat Abu Ubaidah bin Jarah fought against Urba , Sheeba and Waleed.
After the Muslims success in the single combat, general fighting began.
While the battle was going, the prophet (P.b.u.h) prayed to Allah saying:
“O Allah if this small band of men perishes today there will be no one left to worship you and your faith will be destroyed forever”
This shows that the Prophet (P.b.u.h) was constantly seeking Allah’s help and Allah’s help did arrive for despite being in less in number, Muslims were able to defeat Quraish.
Abu Jahl- leader of Quraish was killed by Abdullah Bin Muadh and Ummayah was killed by Hazrat Bilal. Overall 70 un believers were killed and 70 were kept as captives, the prophet treated prisoners of war humanly and many were freed. On the other hand, only 14 Muslims were martyred . A large number of booty was also captured which was distributed among the Muslims.
In Quran battle of Badr is also stated as:
“It was not who slew them, it was Allah; when you thrust (a handful of dust) it was not your act, but Allah’s in order that He might test the believers.”