Salts are Ionic Compounds. A salt is formed when a metallic ion or an ammonium ion (NH4+) replaces one or more Hydrogen Ions of an acid.

Get O/A Levels & IGCSE Solved Topical Past Papers, Notes & Books

🚚Delivering all over PAKISTAN 🇵🇰 & ✈️ Internationally 🌐

Contact Our Expert Team for Free Guidance & Suggestions

A Salt contains a positive metal ion and a negative non – metal ion.


Zn(OH)2   + H2SO4Arrow used In Chemical EquationZnSO4    2H2O


Water of Crystalization:

  • Many salts combine with water molecules to form crystals . These water molecules are known as water of crystallization.
  • Salts that contain Water of Crystallization are called Hydrated Salts.
  • Salts that do not contain water of crystallization are called Anhydrous Salts.

Anhydrous Salts – Powder form

Hydrous Salts – Crystal / Perfectly Dry


Copper(II) Sulphate:  (Cu SO4) –  CuSO4.5H20

Magnesium Sulphate (MgSO4) – MgSO4.7H20

Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) – Na2CO3.10H20

Zinc Sulphate (ZnSO4)  –  ZnSO4.7H20

Removing Water of Crystallization:

When a hydrated salt is heated, water of crystallization is given off.


Soluble and In Soluble Salts:

Soluble and In soluble salts


Preperation Of Salts:

Preperation Of Salts Capture31Titration Method:

  • Salt that has to be made should be soluble.
  • Salt starters should be soluble.

Only Acid + Alkali titration can be done.

Alkali – Soluble Base

Metal Oxides / OH Of Group # 1 and 2 as all are soluble


  • Common acids used in titration:

HCl, HNO3, H2SO4


Apparatus Needed: Burette, Pipette and Conical Flask



  • Acid – colourless
  • Alkali – Pink

Methyl Orange:

  • Acid – Red
  • Alkali – Yellow


Example of Salt made through Titration:


Reagents / Starters:

Mg(OH)2  and   H2SO4


Mg(OH)2  +  H2SO4 Arrow used In Chemical EquationMgSO4 +H2O


Mg(OH)2  is added by means of a pipette to a conical flask. A few drops of phenolphthalein are added. Then H2SO4 is poured into the conical flask using a burette.

The end point of the titration is reached when the phenolphthalein changes its colour from pink to colourless.

The volume of H2SO4 requires to reach the end point is noted. Then the whole procedure is repeated without addition of phenolphthalein.

The solution is then evaporated under sunlight to form bigger crystals of MgSO4


Excessive Reagent Method:

  • Salt that has to be made should be soluble.
  • Salt starters should not be soluble.

Example of Salt made through Excessive Reagent Method:


ZnO  + 2HNO3 Arrow used In Chemical Equation Zn(NO3)2   + H2O

Pour 10ml of Hno3 into a beaker using a pipette. Add excessive amount of ZnO into the beaker containing HNO3.

Precipitates of excess ZnO wil form at the bottom of the beaker.

Using filteration filterate the ZnO from Zn(NO3)2 solution.

Zn(NO3)2 Solution is then heated over a burner flame in a china dish. It is then allowed to cool slowly. Crystals formed and are dried between the pieces of filter paper.


Evaporate Zn(NO3)2 solution under sunlight crystals of Zn(NO3)2 will form after same time.



  • Salt that has to be made should not be soluble.
  • Salt starters should be soluble.

Example of Salt made through Precipitation:


CaCl2  +  Na2CO3Arrow used In Chemical EquationCaCO3    +  NaCl

Add CaCl2 into a beaker that already contains Na2co3. Precipitates of CaCO3 will form at the bottom of the beaker. Separate the newly formed insoluble CaCO3 using filtration.

CaCO3 is then evaporated under sunlight, crystals are formed.



  • All soluble salts of Group 1 and 2 except Ca sulphate and Carbonate are prepaired by titration method.
  • All soluble esalts of transitional metals are prepaires by reacting the oxides with acids through excessive reagent method.
  • All insoluble salts are prepaired by percepitaion method.

Relax your Mind From Studying and WATCH this Beautiful Sun Flower Painting.

SUBSCRIBE to learn How to Paint

About Admin



  1. Avatar

    I need the O level Cambridge course to study online……..Please would you kindly tell me where i can get it….

Leave a Reply

TeachifyMe Shop